Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

Prevalence and Determinants of Premature Menopause among Indian Women: Issues and Challenges Ahead.

Health Soc Work. 2017 Mar 09;:1-8

Authors: Jungari SB, Chauhan BG

Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause in women less than 40 years of age. This heterogeneous disorder affects 1 percent and 0.1 percent of women less than 40 and 30 years of age, respectively. The study reported in this article attempts to understand the prevalence and determinants of premature menopause among Indian women by studying the effects of various socioeconomic indicators, such as age, education, wealth index, rural-urban settlement, work status, religion, and caste, on women. The study analyzed the National Family Health Survey-3, which is equivalent to the Demographic Health Survey in India. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to tease out the determinants of premature menopause. Results indicate that the percentage of premature menopause is very high (5.5 percent) among Indian women. Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh women have the highest percentage of premature menopause (14.6 percent). Smoking and the nutritional status of women are strongly associated with early menopause. Furthermore, women living in rural areas and using tobacco are at a greater risk of premature menopause.

PMID: 28340231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alizarin Red S for Online Pyrophosphate Detection Identified by a Rapid Screening Method.

Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 24;7:45085

Authors: Fischbach J, Loh Q, Bier FF, Lim TS, Frohme M, Glökler J

We identified Alizarin Red S and other well known fluorescent dyes useful for the online detection of pyrophosphate in enzymatic assays, including the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. An iterative screening was used for a selected set of compounds to first secure enzyme compatibility, evaluate inorganic pyrophosphate sensitivity in the presence of manganese as quencher and optimize conditions for an online detection. Of the selected dyes, the inexpensive alizarin red S was found to selectively detect pyrophosphate under LAMP and PCR conditions and is superior with respect to its defined red-shifted spectrum, long shelf life and low toxicity. In addition, the newly identified properties may also be useful in other enzymatic assays which do not generate nucleic acids but are based on inorganic pyrophosphate. Finally, we propose that our screening method may provide a blueprint for rapid screening of compounds for detecting inorganic pyrophosphate.

PMID: 28338022 [PubMed - in process]

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Optimization of ultraviolet ozone treatment process for improvement of polycaprolactone (PCL) microcarrier performance.

Cytotechnology. 2017 Mar 23;:

Authors: Samsudin N, Hashim YZ, Arifin MA, Mel M, Salleh HM, Sopyan I, Jimat DN

Growing cells on microcarriers may have overcome the limitation of conventional cell culture system. However, the surface functionality of certain polymeric microcarriers for effective cell attachment and growth remains a challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a biodegradable polymer has received considerable attention due to its good mechanical properties and degradation rate. The drawback is the non-polar hydrocarbon moiety which makes it not readily suitable for cell attachment. This report concerns the modification of PCL microcarrier surface (introduction of functional oxygen groups) using ultraviolet irradiation and ozone (UV/O3) system and investigation of the effects of ozone concentration, the amount of PCL and exposure time; where the optimum conditions were found to be at 60,110.52 ppm, 5.5 g PCL and 60 min, respectively. The optimum concentration of carboxyl group (COOH) absorbed on the surface was 1495.92 nmol/g and the amount of gelatin immobilized was 320 ± 0.9 µg/g on UV/O3 treated microcarriers as compared to the untreated (26.83 ± 3 µg/g) microcarriers. The absorption of functional oxygen groups on the surface and the immobilized gelatin was confirmed with the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and the enhancement of hydrophilicity of the surface was confirmed using water contact angle measurement which decreased (86.93°-49.34°) after UV/O3 treatment and subsequently after immobilization of gelatin. The attachment and growth kinetics for HaCaT skin keratinocyte cells showed that adhesion occurred much more rapidly for oxidized surfaces and gelatin immobilized surface as compared to untreated PCL.

PMID: 28337561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Cellular Homeostasis and Antioxidant Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:3708048

Authors: Smn Mydin RB, Sreekantan S, Hazan R, Farid Wajidi MF, Mat I

Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA) have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense) was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes. These mechanisms furnish to protect DNA during cellular division from an oxidative challenge, set in motion with XRRC5 and RAD50 genes for DNA damage and repair activities. The cell fate decision on TNA-nanoenvironment has been reported to possibly regulate proliferative activities via expression of p27 and BCL2 tumor suppressor proteins, cogent with SKP2 and BCL2 oncogenic proteins suppression. Findings suggested that epithelial HT29 cells on the surface of TNA may have a positive regulation via cell-homeostasis mechanisms: a careful circadian orchestration between cell proliferation, survival, and death. This nanomolecular knowledge could be beneficial for advanced medical applications such as in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutics.

PMID: 28337249 [PubMed - in process]

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An introduction to DARC technology.

Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2017 Jan-Mar;31(1):38-41

Authors: Ahmad SS

Glaucoma is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder. The common denominator in all types of glaucomas is retinal ganglion cell death through apoptosis. However, this cellular demise in glaucoma is detected late by structural or functional analyses. There can be a 10-year delay prior to the appearance of visual field defects and pre-perimetric glaucoma is an issue still being addressed. However, a new cutting-edge technology called detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC) is being developed. This technique is capable of non-invasive, real-time visualization of apoptotic changes at the cellular level. It can detect glaucomatous cell damage at a very early stage, at the moment apoptosis starts, and thus management can be initiated even prior to development of visual field changes. In future, this technique will also be able to provide conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of treatment protocol and the need for any modifications which may be required. This article aims to provide a concise review of DARC technology.

PMID: 28337061 [PubMed - in process]

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Increased exposure to sodium during pregnancy and lactation changes basal and induced behavioral and neuroendocrine responses in adult male offspring.

Physiol Rep. 2017 Mar;5(6):

Authors: Silva MS, Lúcio-Oliveira F, Mecawi AS, Almeida LF, Ruginsk SG, Greenwood MP, Greenwood M, Vivas L, Elias LL, Murphy D, Antunes-Rodrigues J

Excessive sodium (Na(+)) intake in modern society has been associated with several chronic disorders such as hypertension. Several studies suggest that early life events can program physiological systems and lead to functional changes in adulthood. Therefore, we investigated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses under basal conditions and after 48 h of water deprivation in adult (60-day-old Wistar rats) male, Wistar rats originating from dams were offered only water or 0.15 mol/L NaCl during pregnancy and lactation. Early life salt exposure induced kidney damage, as shown by a higher number of ED-1 positive cells (macrophages/monocytes), increased daily urinary volume and Na(+) excretion, blunted basal water intake and plasma oxytocin levels, and increased plasma corticosterone secretion. When challenged with water deprivation, animals exposed to 0.15 mol/L NaCl during early life showed impaired water intake, reduced salt preference ratio, and vasopressin (AVP) secretion. In summary, our data demonstrate that the perinatal exposure to excessive Na(+) intake can induce kidney injury in adult offspring and significantly affect the key mechanisms regulating water balance, fluid intake, and AVP release in response to water deprivation. Collectively, these novel results highlight the impact of perinatal programming on the homeostatic mechanisms regulating fluid and electrolyte balance during exposure to an environmental stress (i.e. dehydration) in later life.

PMID: 28336818 [PubMed - in process]

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Purinergic P2Y6 receptors: A new therapeutic target of age-dependent hypertension.

Pharmacol Res. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Sunggip C, Nishimura A, Shimoda K, Numaga-Tomita T, Tsuda M, Nishida M

Aging has a remarkable effect on cardiovascular homeostasis and it is known as the major non-modifiable risk factor in the development of hypertension. Medications targeting sympathetic nerve system and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are widely accepted as a powerful therapeutic strategy to improve hypertension, although the control rates remain unsatisfactory especially in the elder patients with hypertension. Purinergic receptors, activated by adenine, uridine nucleotides and nucleotide sugars, play pivotal roles in many biological processes, including platelet aggregation, neurotransmission and hormone release, and regulation of cardiovascular contractility. Since clopidogrel, a selective inhibitor of G protein-coupled purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R), achieved clinical success as an anti-platelet drug, P2YRs has been attracted more attention as new therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases. We have revealed that UDP-responsive P2Y6R promoted angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R)-stimulated vascular remodeling in mice, in an age-dependent manner. Moreover, the age-related formation of heterodimer between AT1R and P2Y6R was disrupted by MRS2578, a P2Y6R-selective inhibitor. These findings suggest that P2Y6R is a therapeutic target to prevent age-related hypertension.

PMID: 28336370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Aqueous calyxes extract of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn supplementation improves liver morphology in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Nazratun Nafizah AH, Budin SB, Zaryantey AH, Mariati AR, Santhana RL, Osman M, Muhd Hanis MI, Jamaludin M

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The complex series of deleterious events among diabetes patients leads to multiple organ failure. Therefore, a holistic approach of treatment is urgently required to prevent worsening of complications. The present investigation was carried out to study the possible protective effects of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (HSL) calyxes aqueous extract, as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent against oxidative liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single dose of streptozotocin (45mg/kg body weight, iv) was used to induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats which were then divided into two groups: Diabetic control (DC) and HSL-treated diabetic (DR) group. Normal rats were divided into normal control (NC), HSL-treated control (NR). Aqueous calyxes extract of HSL (100mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 28 consecutive days in the treated group. Weight, biochemical and histopathological (light and electron microscopic) parameters were compared in all groups.
RESULTS: Supplementation of HSL significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in DR group compared to DC group (p<0.05). Alanine aminotransaminases and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes level were found to be significantly reduced in DR compared to DC. Microscopic examination demonstrated destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and signs of necrosis in diabetic rats. Moreover, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels with leucocytes adherence were detected. Ultrastructural study using electron microscope showed homogeneous substance accumulation in nuclear chromatin, a decrease of organelles and mitochondrial degeneration in the diabetic rats.
CONCLUSION: Administration of HSL in diabetic rats causes significant decrease in hepatocyte destruction and prevented the changes associated with the diabetic condition. Thus, our findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of HSL as promising agent in preventing liver injury in diabetes.

PMID: 28336227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Development and initial evaluation of a lateral flow dipstick test for antigen detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool sample.

Pathog Glob Health. 2017 Mar 24;:1-9

Authors: Saidin S, Yunus MH, Othman N, Lim YA, Mohamed Z, Zakaria NZ, Noordin R

Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml(-1). Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml(-1). The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.

PMID: 28335696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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An unexpected cause of transient diarrhea.

Postgrad Med. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Chuah YY, Lee YY, Tsai TJ

Migration of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube to colon with gastro-colonic-cutaneous fistula formation is a rare complication of the procedure. Transient episodic diarrhea following each PEG tube feeding is typical of this complication. We present a 72-year-old man with cerebrovascular disease and scoliosis who encountered episodes of transient diarrhea after each PEG tube feeding. His diarrhea was refractory to medications. Colonoscopy demonstrated a mal-positioned PEG in the transverse colon. Computed tomogram (CT) of abdomen further confirmed the finding. After removal of the migrated PEG, his diarrhea had ceased completely. The gastro-colonic-cutaneous fistula was further managed with endoscopic clipping method with no complications encountered during follow up.

PMID: 28335674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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