Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.
Distinct Frequency Specialization for Detecting Dark Transients in Humans and Tree Shrews.
Cell Rep. 2018 May 22;23(8):2405-2415
Authors: Khani A, Mustafar F, Rainer G
Despite well-known privileged perception of dark over light stimuli, it is unknown to what extent this dark dominance is maintained when visual transients occur in rapid succession, for example, during perception of moving stimuli. Here, we address this question using dark and light transients presented at different flicker frequencies. Although both human participants and tree shrews exhibited dark dominance for temporally modulated transients, these occurred at different flicker frequencies, namely, at 11 Hz in humans and 40 Hz and higher in tree shrews. Tree shrew V1 neuronal activity confirmed that differences between light and dark flicker were maximal at 40 Hz, corresponding closely to behavioral findings. These findings suggest large differences in flicker perception between humans and tree shrews, which may be related to the lifestyle of these species. A specialization for detecting dark transients at high temporal frequencies may thus be adaptive for tree shrews, which are particularly fast-moving small mammals.
PMID: 29791851 [PubMed - in process]
Impact of ruxolitinib pretreatment on outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis.
Eur J Haematol. 2018 May 23;:
Authors: Shahnaz Syed Abd Kadir S, Christopeit M, Gerald W, Wagner E, Bornhauser M, Schroeder T, Crysandt M, Mayer K, Jonas J, Stelljes M, Badbaran A, Ayuketang Ayuk F, Triviai I, Wolf D, Wolschke C, Kröger N
INTRODUCTION: Ruxolitinib is the first approved drug for treatment of myelofibrosis, but its impact of outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is unknown.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reported on 159 myelofibrosis patients (pts) with a median age of 59 years (r: 28 - 74) who received reduced intensity ASCT between 2000 and 2015 in 8 German centers from related (n = 23), matched (n=86) or mismatched (n=50) unrelated donors. Forty-six (29%) patients received ruxolitinib at any time point prior to ASCT. The median daily dose of ruxolitinib was 30mg (range 10-40mg) and the median duration of treatment was 4.9 months (range 0.4 - 39.1 months).
RESULTS: Primary graft failure was seen in 2 pts (4%) in the ruxolitinib and 3 (2%) in the non-ruxolitinib group. Engraftment and incidence of acute GVHD grade II to IV and III/IV did not differ between groups (37% vs. 39% and 19% vs. 28%, respectively), nor did the non-relapse mortality at 2 years (23% vs. 23%). A trend for lower risk of relapse was seen in the ruxolitinib group (9% vs. 17%, p = 0.2), resulting in a similar 2 year DFS and OS (68% vs. 60% and 73% vs. 70%, respectively). No difference in any outcome variable could be seen between ruxolitinib responders and those who failed or lost response to ruxolitinib.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ruxolitinib pretreatment in myelofibrosis patient does not negatively influence outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29791053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Global Lung Initiative 2012 spirometry reference values in a large Asian cohort of Malay, Chinese and Indian ancestry.
Respirology. 2018 May 22;:
Authors: Abdullah N, Borhanuddin B, Shah SA, Hassan T, Jamal R
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although the multi-ethnic European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative (ERS/GLI) 2012 reference values have been developed, the Taskforce has called for further validation specifically on subpopulations that were under represented such as the Malays, Chinese and Indians, in which the two latter ethnic groups represent about one-third of the world population. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the appropriateness of the ERS/GLI 2012 reference values in a healthy adult Malaysian population and to construct a local lung function reference for the Malaysia population specific to the three major ethnic groups.
METHODS: Acceptable spirometry data were obtained from 30 281 healthy subjects aged 35-70 years comprising Malays, Chinese and Indians from the Malaysian Cohort. Local reference values were calculated using regression analysis and evaluated using ERS/GLI reference values to obtain GLI Z-scores.
RESULTS: The mean (SD) of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) for males were 2.67 (0.46), 2.89 (0.48) and 2.60 (0.46) and females were 1.91 (0.36), 2.13 (0.37) and 1.86 (0.35) for Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. For forced vital capacity (FVC), the mean (SD) for males were 3.03 (0.53), 3.28 (0.58) and 2.92 (0.53) and females were 2.15 (0.40), 2.38 (0.43) and 2.07 (0.41) for Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The mean GLI Z-scores were less than -0.5 for FEV1 and FVC and more than 0.5 for FEV1 /FVC. A large percentage of subjects in all the three ethnic groups were defined lower than the lower limit of normal.
CONCLUSION: This present and large multi-ethnic Asian-based study demonstrates clinically significant deviation from ERS/GLI 2012 equations for spirometry. It highlights the importance of validating predicted equations for spirometry in local populations.
PMID: 29790229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide and its gold nanoparticle conjugation prevent glycerol-induced acute kidney injury by attenuating inflammation and oxidative injury in mice.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018 May 22;:
Authors: Siddiqui RA, Simjee SU, Kabir N, Ateeq M, Shah MR, Hussain SS
The protective activity of N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (NA-2) and NA-2-coated gold nanoparticles (NA-2-AuNPs) in glycerol-treated model of acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice was investigated. NA-2 (50 mg/kg) and NA-2-AuNPs (30 mg/kg) were given to the animals for four days followed by 24-h water deprivation and injection of 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg im). The animals were sacrificed on the next day. Blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical investigations (urea and creatinine), histological studies (hematoxylin and eosin; and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry (actin and cyclooxygenase-2, Cox-2), and real-time RT-PCR (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS; nuclear factor-κB p50, NFκB; hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1; and kidney injury molecule-1, Kim-1). NA-2 protected renal tubular necrosis and inflammation, though the result of NA-2-AuNPs was better than compound alone and it also exhibited the activity at far less dose. The test compound and its gold nano-formulation decreased the levels of serum urea and creatinine level in the treated animals. Both NA-2 and NA-2-AuNPs also conserved actin cytoskeleton, and lowered COX-2 protein expression. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of iNOS and NFkB p50 were down-regulated, and HO-1 and Kim-1 genes were up-regulated. We conclude that NA-2 and NA-2-AuNPs ameliorates kidney inflammation and injury in glycerol-induced AKI animal model via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms which make it a suitable candidate for further studies. We believe that these findings will contribute in the understanding of the mechanism of action of paracetamol-like drugs and can be considered for clinical research for the prevention of AKI.
PMID: 29790115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
GCTTCA as a novel motif for regulating mesocarp-specific expression of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene.
Plant Cell Rep. 2018 May 22;:
Authors: Hanifiah FHA, Abdullah SNA, Othman A, Shaharuddin NA, Saud HM, Hasnulhadi HAH, Munusamy U
KEY MESSAGE: TAAAAT and a novel motif, GCTTCA found in the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1) promoter are involved in regulating mesocarp-specific expression. Two key fatty acid biosynthetic genes, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1), and acyl-carrier protein (ACP3) in Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) showed high level of expression during the period of oil synthesis in the mesocarp [12-19 weeks after anthesis (w.a.a.)] and kernel (12-15 w.a.a.). Both genes are expressed in spear leaves at much lower levels and the expression increased by 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold following treatments with ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). Both SAD1 and ACP3 promoters contain phytohormone-responsive, light-responsive, abiotic factors/wounding-responsive, endosperm specificity and fruit maturation/ripening regulatory motifs. The activities of the full length and six 5' deletion fragments of the SAD1 promoter were analyzed in transiently transformed oil palm tissues by quantitative β-glucuronidase (GUS) fluorometric assay. The highest SAD1 promoter activity was observed in the mesocarp followed by kernel and the least in the leaves. GUS activity in the D3 deletion construct (- 486 to + 108) was the highest, while the D2 (- 535 to + 108) gave the lowest suggesting the presence of negative cis-acting regulatory element(s) in the deleted - 535 to - 486 (49 bp). It was found that the 49-bp region binds to the nuclear protein extract from mesocarp but not from leaves in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Further fine-tuned analysis of this 49-bp region using truncated DNA led to the identification of GCTTCA as a novel motif in the SAD1 promoter. Interestingly, another known fruit ripening-related motif, LECPLEACS2 (TAAAAT) was found to be required for effective binding of the novel motif to the mesocarp nuclear protein extract.
PMID: 29789886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2018 May 23;7(6):
Authors: Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S, Aglago EK, Zhang Y, Jin Y, Pan B
Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.
PMID: 29789516 [PubMed]
Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort.
Nutrients. 2018 May 22;10(5):
Authors: van Roekel EH, Trijsburg L, Assi N, Carayol M, Achaintre D, Murphy N, Rinaldi S, Schmidt JA, Stepien M, Kaaks R, Kühn T, Boeing H, Iqbal K, Palli D, Krogh V, Tumino R, Ricceri F, Panico S, Peeters PH, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Ardanaz E, Lujan-Barroso L, Quirós JR, Huerta JM, Molina-Portillo E, Dorronsoro M, Tsilidis KK, Riboli E, Rostgaard-Hansen AL, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Weiderpass E, Boutron-Ruault MC, Severi G, Trichopoulou A, Karakatsani A, Kotanidou A, Håkansson A, Malm J, Weijenberg MP, Gunter MJ, Jenab M, Johansson M, Travis RC, Scalbert A, Ferrari P
Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.
PMID: 29789452 [PubMed - in process]
Novel Pharmacotherapeutic Approaches In Treatment Of Alcohol Addiction.
Curr Drug Targets. 2018 May 22;:
Authors: Mohamad RMP, Kumar J, Ahmad SU, Mohamed IN
In the past two decades, the search for novel pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol addiction been a global endeavour. This has resulted in several drugs that have been approved and successfully marketed for public use while some are still in the testing phase. These pharmacological agents, though effective for the treatment of alcoholism, are not without shortcomings; such as abuse potential, serious mental and physical adverse effects, interaction with alcohol and also poor metabolism and excretion. As more is being understood about the neurobiology of alcohol addiction as well as the unique pharmacological action of these drugs, new agents are evaluated for potential benefits when used as a adjunct in combination therapy. This review article summarizes the novel pharmacotherapeutic approaches in treatment of alcohol addiction by focusing on the drugs, which includes neramexane, gabapentin, baclofen, aripiprazole, nalmafene, and quetiapine.
PMID: 29788886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Hemiballismus in Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus.
Korean J Fam Med. 2018 May;39(3):200-203
Authors: Jaafar J, Rahman RA, Draman N, Yunus NA
Hemiballismus, a subtype of chorea, is a rare movement disorder, and is most commonly found secondary to stroke. Movements are involuntary, violent, coarse, and have a wide amplitude. There is increasing report of hemiballismus occurring in non-ketotic hyperglycemia. Spontaneous improvements or remissions were observed in many patients, and treatment should be directed towards the cause of hemiballismus. There is no randomized control trial to guide clinicians in deciding the best treatment option when managing hemiballismus. Symptomatic treatment includes the use of drugs such as dopamine receptor blocker and tetrabenazine. Surgical treatment is reserved for severe, persistent, and disabling hemiballismus. This case is of an elderly woman with long standing uncontrolled diabetes who presented with abnormal movement in her left upper limb for 2 months, which resolved slowly with good control of her glucose levels. Treating physicians need to have a high index of suspicion to prevent mismanagement of the condition.
PMID: 29788710 [PubMed]
Groundwater potential mapping using C5.0, random forest, and multivariate adaptive regression spline models in GIS.
Environ Monit Assess. 2018 Feb 17;190(3):149
Authors: Golkarian A, Naghibi SA, Kalantar B, Pradhan B
Ever increasing demand for water resources for different purposes makes it essential to have better understanding and knowledge about water resources. As known, groundwater resources are one of the main water resources especially in countries with arid climatic condition. Thus, this study seeks to provide groundwater potential maps (GPMs) employing new algorithms. Accordingly, this study aims to validate the performance of C5.0, random forest (RF), and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) algorithms for generating GPMs in the eastern part of Mashhad Plain, Iran. For this purpose, a dataset was produced consisting of spring locations as indicator and groundwater-conditioning factors (GCFs) as input. In this research, 13 GCFs were selected including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index (TWI), slope length, distance from rivers and faults, rivers and faults density, land use, and lithology. The mentioned dataset was divided into two classes of training and validation with 70 and 30% of the springs, respectively. Then, C5.0, RF, and MARS algorithms were employed using R statistical software, and the final values were transformed into GPMs. Finally, two evaluation criteria including Kappa and area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) were calculated. According to the findings of this research, MARS had the best performance with AUC-ROC of 84.2%, followed by RF and C5.0 algorithms with AUC-ROC values of 79.7 and 77.3%, respectively. The results indicated that AUC-ROC values for the employed models are more than 70% which shows their acceptable performance. As a conclusion, the produced methodology could be used in other geographical areas. GPMs could be used by water resource managers and related organizations to accelerate and facilitate water resource exploitation.
PMID: 29455381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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