Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

Impact of gender on sexual problems and perceptions among urban Malay elderly in Malaysia.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019 Jan 08;81:240-244

Authors: Minhat HS, Mat Din H, Vasudevan R, Raja Adnan RNE, Ibrahim R

BACKGROUND: Physical and pathological changes associated with advancing age affect sexual behaviours of the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of gender on sexual problems and perceptions among the urban Malay elderly.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 Malaysian elderly participants aged 60 years and older who live in Kuala Lumpur. Twelve neighbourhood associations were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Data was collected using standardized and validated questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique with which was conducted by trained interviewers.
RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 65.33 (5.87) year old with majority were still married. Female (55.7%) reported more sexual problems as evidenced by the higher proportion of those with lacked interest in having sex (72.5%), find sex is unpleasant (34.8%) and unable to come to orgasm (55.1%). Gender was found to have significant impact on every model obtained in the analysis for both sexual problems and perceptions. Female elderly were 10.6 times more likely to have sexual problem compared to male elderly (OR = 10.64, P < 0.001, 95% CI 3.61, 31.35) and 033 less likely to have good sexual perception (OR = 0.33, P = 0.027, 95% CI 0.12, 0.88).
CONCLUSION: Gender is a crucial factor towards sexual problem and perceptions among older persons. Older women were reported to have more sexual problems and poor sexual perceptions, reflecting the needs for sexual awareness and education to improve the perceptions and sexuality in later life.

PMID: 30669017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hyptis verticillata attenuates dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and hepato-renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Life Sci. 2019 Jan 19;:

Authors: Ogar I, Egbung GE, Nna VU, Atangwho IJ, Itam EH

AIMS: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the production of free radicals which results in oxidative stress and related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, compromised hepatic and renal functions. Hyptis verticillata reportedly demonstrated glucose lowering activity in previous studies. The present study therefore evaluated the effect of H. verticillata on hyperglycaemia-induced dyslipidaemia, hepatorenal distortions, oxidative stress, as well as calculated indices of cardiovascular function.
METHODS: Wistar rats employed for this study consisted of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats in nine experimental groups. The normoglycaemic and diabetic rats were either treated with metformin (500 mg/kg b.w.), quercetin (10 mg/kg b.w.), or ethanol extract of H. verticillata leaf (250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w.) administered orally for 28 days.
KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that H. verticillata significantly lowered blood glucose level, attenuated dyslipidaemia, decreased atherogenic coefficient, atherogenic and coronary risk indices, and increased cardioprotective index in diabetic rats. Also, H. verticillata significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and unconjugated bilirubin levels, related to untreated diabetic rats. Further, H. verticillata increased serum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level, and decreased malondialdehyde level in diabetic rats in a manner similar to metformin and quercetin. Histopathological investigation of the liver and kidney revealed restored hepatocytes and amelioration of congested interstitial blood vessel of the bowman's space of the kidneys upon intervention with H. verticillata.
SIGNIFICANCE: H. verticillata in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic activity ameliorates oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia, atherogenicity and hepatorenal lesions in DM.

PMID: 30668955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genomic analysis of Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia reveals selective pressures in multiple parasite mechanisms.

J Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 21;:

Authors: Auburn S, Getachew S, Pearson RD, Amato R, Miotto O, Trimarsanto H, Zhu SJ, Rumaseb A, Marfurt J, Noviyanti R, Grigg MJ, Barber B, William T, Goncalves SM, Drury E, Sriprawat K, Anstey NM, Nosten F, Petros B, Aseffa A, McVean G, Kwiatkowski DP, Price RN

The Horn of Africa harbours the largest reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in the continent. Most of sub-Saharan Africa has remained relatively vivax-free due to a high prevalence of the human Duffy-negative trait, but the emergence of strains able to invade Duffy-negative reticulocytes poses a major public health threat. We undertook the first population genomic investigation of P. vivax from the region, comparing the genomes of 24 Ethiopian isolates against data from Southeast Asia to identify important local adaptions. The prevalence of the duffy binding protein amplification in Ethiopia was 79%, potentially reflecting adaptation to Duffy-negativity. There was also evidence of selection in a region upstream of the chloroquine resistance transporter, a putative chloroquine-resistance determinant. Strong signals of selection were observed in genes involved in immune evasion and regulation of gene expression, highlighting the need for a multifaceted intervention approach to combat P. vivax in the region.

PMID: 30668735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Anti-ulcerogenic activity of dentatin from clausena excavata Burm.f. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Possible role of mucus and anti-oxidant effect.

Phytomedicine. 2018 Aug 03;55:31-39

Authors: Sidahmed HMA, Vadivelu J, Loke MF, Arbab IA, Abdul B, Sukari MA, Abdelwahab SI

BACKGROUND: Clausena excavata Burm.f. (Rutaceae) has been used for the treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcer.
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate dentatin isolated from C. excavata Burm.f., for anti-ulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats.
METHODS: Gastric acid output, ulcer index, serum profile, histological evaluation using Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid Schiff base stainings and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) were all investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, radical scavenging, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity were investigated.
RESULTS: Dentatin showed anti-secretory activity against the pylorus ligature model and protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol ulceration, as revealed by the improved macroscopic and histological appearance. Dentatin significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of PGE2 GSH and SOD. Dentatin inhibited the lipid peroxidation as revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, dentatin up-regulated HSP70 expression. However, dentatin showed insignificant anti-H. pylori activity.
CONCLUSION: Dentatin possesses gastro-protective activity, which could be attributed to the anti-secretory, mucus production, anti-oxidant, and HSP70 activities.

PMID: 30668441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Standardized extract of Zingiber zerumbet suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages.

Phytomedicine. 2018 Sep 18;54:195-205

Authors: Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H, Ghazalee S

BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome has been used as spices and in traditional medicine to heal various immune-inflammatory related ailments. Although the plant was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties by several studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been well justified.
PURPOSE: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages.
METHODS: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level.
RESULTS: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.

PMID: 30668369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of Korean black ginseng.

Phytomedicine. 2018 Sep 18;54:169-181

Authors: Lee YY, Saba E, Irfan M, Kim M, Chan JY, Jeon BS, Choi SK, Rhee MH

BACKGROUND: Different processing conditions alter the ginseng bioactive compounds, promoting or reducing its anti-inflammatory effects. We compared black ginseng (BG) - that have been steamed 5 times - with red ginseng (RG).
HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.
METHODS: Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema RESULTS: The ginsenoside contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Protein expression was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as dexamethasone and indomethacin - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the NSAIDs.
CONCLUSION: BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.

PMID: 30668366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Admission Clinicopathological Factors Associated with Prolonged Hospital Stay Among Hospitalized Patients with Dengue Viral Infections.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 Jan 22;:

Authors: Willeam Peter SS, Hassan SS, Khei Tan VP, Ngim CF, Azreen Adnan NA, Pong LY, Dhanoa A

BACKGROUND: There is an escalation of frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics in Malaysia, with a concomitant increase in patient hospitalization. Prolonged hospitalization (PH) due to dengue virus (DENV) infections causes considerable socioeconomic burden. Early identification of patients needing PH could optimize resource consumption and reduce health care costs. This study aims to identify clinicopathological factors present on admission that are associated with PH among patients with DENV infections.
METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Southern Malaysia. Relevant clinical and laboratory data upon admission were retrieved from medical records of 253 consecutive DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and PCR-positive hospitalized patients. The DENV serotype present in each patient was determined. Patients were stratified based on duration of hospital stay (<4 vs. ≥4 days). Data were analyzed using IBM® SPSS® 25.0. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between PH and admission parameters.
RESULTS: Of 253 DENV hospitalized patients, 95 (37.5%) had PH (≥4 days). The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.43 ± 2.085 days (median = 3 days, interquartile range = 7 days). Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.261, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.130-18.406, p = 0.001), DENV-2 serotype (AOR = 2.581, 95% CI = 1.179-5.650, p = 0.018), duration of fever ≤4 days (AOR = 2.423, 95% CI = 0.872-6.734, p = 0.09), and a shorter preadmission fever duration (AOR = 0.679, 95% CI = 0.481-0.957, p = 0.027) were independently associated with PH. However, PH was not found to be associated with symptoms on admission, secondary DENV infections or platelet count, hematocrit, or liver enzyme levels on admission.
CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of these factors at presentation may alert clinicians to anticipate and recognize challenges in treating such patients, leading to more focused management plans that may shorten the duration of hospitalization.

PMID: 30668248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The top 50 most-cited articles published in the International Endodontic Journal.

Int Endod J. 2019 Jan 22;:

Authors: Ahmad P, Dummer PMH, Noorani TY, Asif JA

AIM: To analyze the main characteristics of the top 50 most-cited articles published in the International Endodontic Journal from 1967 to 2018.
METHODOLOGY: The Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science "All Databases", Elsevier's Scopus, Google Scholar and PubMed Central were searched to retrieve the 50 most-cited articles in the IEJ published from April 1967 to December 2018. The articles were analyzed and information including number of citations, year of publication, contributing authors, institutions and countries, study design, study topic, impact factor, and keywords was extracted.
RESULTS: The number of citations of the 50 selected papers varied from 575 to 130 (Web of Science), 656 to164 (Elsevier's Scopus), 1354 to 199 (Google Scholar), and 123 to 3 (PubMed). The majority of papers were published in the year 2001 (n=7). Among 102 authors, the greatest contribution was made by four contributors that included Gulabivala K (n=4), Ng YL (n=4), Pitt Ford TR (n=4) and Wesselink PR (n=4). The majority of papers originated from the United Kingdom (n=8) with most contributions from King's College London Dental Institute (UK) and Eastman Dental Hospital, London. Reviews were the most common study design (n=19) followed by Clinical Research (n=16) and Basic Research (n=15). The majority of topics covered by the most-cited articles were Outcome Studies (n=9), Intracanal medicaments (n=8), Endodontic microbiology (n=7) and Canal instrumentation (n=7). Among 76 unique key words, Endodontics (n=7), Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) (n=7) and Root Canal Treatment (n=7) were the most frequently used.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify and analyze the top 50 most-cited articles in a specific professional journal within Dentistry. The analysis has revealed information regarding the development of the IEJ over time as well as scientific progress in the field of Endodontology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30667524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Determining weight-bearing tissue condition using peak reactive hyperemia response trend and ultrasonographic features: Implications for pressure ulcer prevention.

Wound Repair Regen. 2019 Jan 22;:

Authors: Yapp JH, Kamil R, Rozi M, Mohtarrudin N, Loqman MY, Ezamin AR, Ahmad SA, Abu Bakar Z

Frequent repositioning is important to prevent pressure ulcer (PU) development, by relieving pressure and recovering damages on skin areas induced by repetitive loading. Although repositioning is the gold standard to prevent PU, there is currently no strategy for determining tissue condition under preventive approaches. In this study, the peak reactive hyperemia (RH) trends and ultrasonographic (US) features are compared with the tissue condition under histopathological examination to determine the potential use of these features in determining the tissue condition non-invasively. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485g, were categorised into three groups and subjected to different recovery times, each with three repetitive loading cycles at skin tissues above of right trochanter area. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 min), moderate (10 min), and prolonged (40 min) recovery, respectively, while applying fixed loading time and pressure (10 min and 50 mmHg, respectively), to provide different degree of recovery and tissue conditions (tissue damage and tissue recovery). Peak RH was measured in the three cycles to determine RH trend (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent). All rat tissues were evaluated using ultrasound at pre- and post-experiment and rated by two raters to categorise the severity of tissue changes (no, mild, moderate, and severe). The tissue condition was also evaluated using histopathological examination to distinguish between normal and abnormal tissues. Most of the samples with increasing RH trend is related to abnormal tissue (71%); while inconsistent RH trends is more related to normal tissue (82%). There is no relationship between the tissue conditions evaluated under ultrasonographic and histopathological examination. Peak RH trend over repetitive loading may serve as a new feature for determining the tissue condition that leading to pressure ulcer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30667138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles

Regulation of S1PR2 by the EBV oncogene LMP1 in aggressive ABC subtype diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

J Pathol. 2019 Jan 21;:

Authors: Vockerodt M, Vrzalikova K, Ibrahim M, Nagy E, Margielewska S, Hollows R, Lupino L, Tooze R, Care M, Simmons W, Schrader A, Perry T, Abdullah M, Foster S, Reynolds G, Dowell A, Rudski Z, Krappmann D, Kube D, Woodman C, Wei W, Taylor G, Murray PG

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found almost exclusively in the activated B cell (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), yet its contribution to this tumour remains poorly understood. We have focussed on the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1), a constitutively activated CD40 homologue expressed in almost all EBV-positive DLBCL and which can disrupt germinal centre (GC) formation and drive lymphomagenesis in mice. Comparison of the transcriptional changes that follow LMP1 expression with those that follow transient CD40 signalling in human GC B cells enabled us to define pathogenic targets of LMP1 aberrantly expressed in ABC-DLBCL. These included the down-regulation of S1PR2, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor that is transcriptionally down-regulated in ABC-DLBCL, and when genetically ablated leads to DLBCL in mice. Consistent with this we found that LMP1-expressing primary ABC-DLBCL were significantly more likely to lack S1PR2 expression than were LMP1-negative tumours. Furthermore, we showed that the down-regulation of S1PR2 by LMP1 drives a signalling loop leading to constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway. Finally, core LMP1-PI3-K targets were enriched for lymphoma-related transcription factors and genes associated with shorter overall survival in patients with ABC-DLBCL. Our data identify a novel function for LMP1 in aggressive DLBCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30666658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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