Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

Related Articles

Generation of a T cell receptor (TCR)-like single domain antibody (sDAb) against a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb) heat shock protein (HSP) 16kDa antigen presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A*02.

Mol Immunol. 2018 Jul 04;101:189-196

Authors: Dass SA, Norazmi MN, Dominguez AA, Miguel MESGS, Tye GJ

The discovery of heat shock protein 16 kDa antigen protein has deepen the understanding of latent tuberculosis since it was found to be primarily expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent phase leading to the rapid optimization and development in terms of diagnosis and therapeutics. Recently, T cell receptor-like antibody has been explored extensively targeting various diseases due to its dual functionality (T cell receptor and antibody). In this study, a TCR-like domain antibody (A2/Ab) with the binding capacity to Mtb heat shock protein (HSP) 16 kDa antigen presented by major histocompatible complex (MHC) HLA-A*02 was successfully generated via biopanning against human domain antibody library. The generated antibody (A2/Ab) exhibited strong functionality and binding capacity against the target assuring the findings of this study to be beneficial for the development of latent tuberculosis diagnosis and immunotherapeutics in future.

PMID: 30007228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Applying a random parameters Negative Binomial Lindley model to examine multi-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia.

Accid Anal Prev. 2018 Jul 11;119:80-90

Authors: Rusli R, Haque MM, Afghari AP, King M

Road safety in rural mountainous areas is a major concern as mountainous highways represent a complex road traffic environment due to complex topology and extreme weather conditions and are associated with more severe crashes compared to crashes along roads in flatter areas. The use of crash modelling to identify crash contributing factors along rural mountainous highways suffers from limitations in data availability, particularly in developing countries like Malaysia, and related challenges due to the presence of excess zero observations. To address these challenges, the objective of this study was to develop a safety performance function for multi-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia. To overcome the data limitations, an in-depth field survey, in addition to utilization of secondary data sources, was carried out to collect relevant information including roadway geometric factors, traffic characteristics, real-time weather conditions, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To address heterogeneity resulting from excess zeros, three specialized modelling techniques for excess zeros including Random Parameters Negative Binomial (RPNB), Random Parameters Negative Binomial - Lindley (RPNB-L) and Random Parameters Negative Binomial - Generalized Exponential (RPNB-GE) were employed. Results showed that the RPNB-L model outperformed the other two models in terms of prediction ability and model fit. It was found that heavy rainfall at the time of crash and the presence of minor junctions along mountainous highways increase the likelihood of multi-vehicle crashes, while the presence of horizontal curves along a steep gradient, the presence of a passing lane and presence of road delineation decrease the likelihood of multi-vehicle crashes. Findings of this study have significant implications for road safety along rural mountainous highways, particularly in the context of developing countries.

PMID: 30007211 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Inter-laboratory Test for oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope analyses of Geothermal Fluids: Assessment of Reservoir Fluid Compositions.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2018 Jul 14;:

Authors: Verma MP, van Geldern R, Barth JAC, Monvoisin G, Rogers K, Grassa F, Carrizo D, Huertas AD, Kretzschmar T, Estrada REV, Godoy JM, Mostapa R, Cortés HAD

RATIONALE: Knowledge of the accuracy and precision for oxygen (δ18 O values) and hydrogen (δ2 H values) stable isotope analyses of geothermal fluid samples is important to understand geothermal reservoir processes, such as partial boiling-condensation and encroachment of cold and reinjected waters. The challenging aspects of the analytical techniques for this specific matrix include memory effects and higher scatter of delta values with increasing total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations, deterioration of Pt-catalysts by dissolved/gaseous H2 S for hydrogen isotope equilibration measurements and isotope salt effects that offsets isotope ratios determined by gas equilibration techniques METHODS: An inter-laboratory comparison exercise for the determination of the δ18 O and δ2 H values of nine geothermal fluid samples was conducted among eleven laboratories from eight countries (CeMIEGeo2017). The delta values were measured by dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS), continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS) and/or laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS). Moreover, five of these laboratories analyzed an additional sample set at least one month after the analysis period of the first set. Statistical evaluations of all the results was performed to obtain the expected isotope ratios of each sample, which were then subsequently used in deep reservoir fluid composition calculations.
RESULTS: The overall analytical precisions of the measurements were ±0.2 ‰ for δ18 O values and ±2.0 ‰ for δ2 H values within the 95 % confidence interval.
CONCLUSIONS: The measured and calculated δ18 O and δ2 H values of water sampled at the weir box, separator and wellhead of geothermal wells suggest the existence of hydrogen and oxygen isotope-exchange equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases at all sampling points in the well. Thus, both procedures for calculating the isotopic compositions of the deep geothermal reservoir fluid - using either the analytical data of the liquid phase at the weir box together with those of vapor at the separator or the analytical data of liquid and vapor phases at the separator -are equally valid.

PMID: 30007043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Parenting Stress and Maternal Coherence: Mothers With Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children.

Am J Audiol. 2018 Jul 13;:1-12

Authors: Jean YQ, Mazlan R, Ahmad M, Maamor N

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory that explains parenting stress among mothers of deaf or hard-of-hearing (D/HH) children.
Method: Fifteen hearing mothers of children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a grounded theory approach was used to inductively analyze parental stress in mothers of D/HH children. Theory generation was achieved through triangulation of data sources and systematic organization of data into codes. The coding process identified salient themes that were constantly cross-checked and compared across data to further develop categories, properties, and tentative hypotheses.
Results: In general, two main themes emerged from the interviews: the contextual stressors and stress-reducing resources. The contextual stressors were labeled as distress over audiology-related needs, pressure to acquire new knowledge and skills, apprehension about the child's future, and demoralizing negative social attitudes. The stress-reducing resources that moderated parenting stress were identified to be the child's progress, mother's characteristics, professional support, and social support. The interaction between the identified stressors and adjustment process uncovered a central theme termed maternal coherence.
Conclusion: The substantive theory suggests that mothers of D/HH children can effectively manage parenting stress and increase well-being by capitalizing on relevant stress-reducing resources to achieve maternal coherence.

PMID: 30007031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A novel molecular and chromosomal lineage of the anthropophilic Simulium (Simulium) rufibasis subgroup (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Taiwan.

Parasitol Res. 2018 Jul 14;:

Authors: Low VL, Takaoka H, Adler PH, Tan TK, Weng FC, Chen CY, Lim YAL, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Sofian-Azirun M, Wang D

The Simulium rufibasis subgroup is one of three subgroups of the Simulium (Simulium) tuberosum species-group; it is characterized by a pair of clustered stout hairs on the ventral surface of female abdominal segment 7. A member of the S. rufibasis subgroup in Taiwan was investigated morphologically and genetically using the universal cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene and polytene chromosomal banding pattern. The Taiwanese material is morphologically similar to S. rosliramlii Takaoka & Chen from Vietnam and represents the second species of the S. rufibasis subgroup known from Taiwan. It also represents a novel molecular lineage that is distinct from three other primary lineages identified as S. doipuiense, S. doipuiense/S. rufibasis, and S. weji previously reported from Thailand. The mitochondrial evidence for a distinct lineage in Taiwan is supported by chromosomal analysis, which revealed unique sex chromosomes. For nomenclatural stability, we associate the name S. arisanum Shiraki with the Taiwanese entity. Originally described from females from Taiwan, S. arisanum until now has remained an enigmatic species.

PMID: 30006809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Sustainable Syntheses of (-)-Jerantinines A & E and Structural Characterisation of the Jerantinine-Tubulin Complex at the Colchicine Binding Site.

Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 13;8(1):10617

Authors: Smedley CJ, Stanley PA, Qazzaz ME, Prota AE, Olieric N, Collins H, Eastman H, Barrow AS, Lim KH, Kam TS, Smith BJ, Duivenvoorden HM, Parker BS, Bradshaw TD, Steinmetz MO, Moses JE

The jerantinine family of Aspidosperma indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana corymbosa are potent microtubule-targeting agents with broad spectrum anticancer activity. The natural supply of these precious metabolites has been significantly disrupted due to the inclusion of T. corymbosa on the endangered list of threatened species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This report describes the asymmetric syntheses of (-)-jerantinines A and E from sustainably sourced (-)-tabersonine, using a straight-forward and robust biomimetic approach. Biological investigations of synthetic (-)-jerantinine A, along with molecular modelling and X-ray crystallography studies of the tubulin-(-)-jerantinine B acetate complex, advocate an anticancer mode of action of the jerantinines operating via microtubule disruption resulting from binding at the colchicine site. This work lays the foundation for accessing useful quantities of enantiomerically pure jerantinine alkaloids for future development.

PMID: 30006510 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Dangers of COPD and asthma under-recognised among Hajj pilgrims.

Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Jul 10;:

Authors: Liew SM, Hussein N, Hanafi NS, Pinnock H, Sheikh A, Khoo EM

PMID: 30006073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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