Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

Related Articles

Effect of Blastocystis sp. in dengue patients-Increase in the treatment cost and exacerbation of symptoms.

PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0211034

Authors: Thergarajan G, Kumar S, Bhassu S, Omar SFBS, Rampal S

Increasing incidences of dengue have become a global health threat with major clinical manifestation including high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms were also expressed among Blastocystis sp. infected individuals, a parasite commonly seen in human stools. This parasite has been previously reported to replicate faster upon exposure to high temperature. The present study is a hospitalized-based cross-sectional study involved the collection of faecal sample from dengue patients. Stool examination was done by in vitro cultivation to isolate Blastocystis sp. Growth pattern of all the positive isolates were analyzed to identify the multiplication rate of Blastocystis sp. isolated from dengue patients. Distribution of Blastocystis sp. among dengue patients was 23.6%. Dengue patients who were positive for Blastocystis sp. infection denoted a significantly higher fever rate reaching 38.73°C (p<0.05) compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients (38.44°C). It was also found that Blastocystis sp. infected patients complained of frequenting the toilet more than five times a day (p<0.05) compared to those who were non-Blastocystis sp. infected. At the same time, the duration of hospitalization was significantly longer (p<0.05) for Blastocystis sp. infected dengue patients compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients. Besides, Blastocystis sp. isolated from dengue patients (in vivo thermal stress) showed a higher growth rate compared to the non-dengue isolated which was exposed to high temperature (in vitro thermal stress). Our findings suggest that presence of Blastocystis sp. during dengue infection could trigger the increase of temperature which could be due to highly elevated pro inflammatory cytokines by both parasitic and virus infection. This could justify why the temperature in Blastocystis sp. infected dengue patients is higher compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients. Higher temperature could have triggered a greater parasite multiplication rate that contributed to the aggravation of the gastrointestinal symptoms.

PMID: 30893309 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Challenges to Diagnostic Standardization of Barrett's Esophagus in Asia.

Dig Endosc. 2019 Mar 20;:

Authors: Soh YSA, Lee YY, Gotoda T, Sharma P, Ho KY, Consortium AB

Barrett's Esophagus (BE), a premalignant condition of the lower esophagus, is increasingly prevalent in Asia. However, endoscopic and histopathogical criteria vary widely between studies across Asia, making it challenging to assess comparability between geographical regions. Furthermore, guidelines from various societies worldwide provide differing viewpoints and definitions, leading to diagnostic challenges that affect prognostication of the condition. In this review, the authors discuss the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of BE, particularly in Asia. Differences between guidelines worldwide are summarized with further discussion regarding various classifications of BE employed, different definitions of gastroesophageal junction used across geographical regions and the clinical implications of Intestinal Metaplasia (IM) in the setting of BE. Although many guidelines recommend the Seattle protocol as the preferred approach regarding dysplasia surveillance in BE, some limitations exist, leading to poor adherence. Newer technologies, such as acetic acid-enhanced magnification endoscopy, narrow band imaging, Raman spectroscopy, molecular approaches and the use of artificial intelligence appear promising in addressing these issues, but further studies are required before implementation into routine clinical practice. Moving forward, the Asian Barrett's Consortium also outlines its ongoing plans to tackle the challenge of standardizing the diagnosis of BE in Asia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30892742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Rapid Detection of Sepsis using CESDA: the Caenorhabditis elegans Sepsis Detection Assay.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2019 Mar 14;52:e20180300

Authors: Tee LF, Tan TL, Neoh HM, Jamal R

INTRODUCTION: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological sensor to detect the urine of sepsis patients (CESDA assay).
METHODS: C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period.
RESULTS: The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.

PMID: 30892548 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

PRISMA for abstracts: best practice for reporting abstracts of systematic reviews in Endodontology.

Int Endod J. 2019 Mar 19;:

Authors: Nagendrababu V, Duncan HF, Tsesis I, Sathorn C, Pulikkotil SJ, Dharmarajan L, Dummer PMH

An abstract is a brief overview of a scientific, clinical or review manuscript as well as a stand-alone summary of a conference abstract. Scientists, clinician-scientists and clinicians rely on the summary information provided in the abstracts of systematic reviews to assist in subsequent clinical decision-making. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for Abstracts checklist was developed to improve the quality, accuracy and completeness of abstracts associated with systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The PRISMA for Abstracts checklist provides a framework for authors to follow, which helps them provide in the abstract the key information from the systematic review that is required by stakeholders. The PRISMA for Abstracts checklist contains 12 items (title, objectives, eligibility criteria, information sources, risk of bias, included studies, synthesis of results, description of the effect, strength and limitations, interpretation, funding and systematic review registration) under six sections (title, background, methods, results, discussion, other). The current article highlights the relevance and importance of the items in the PRISMA for Abstracts checklist to the specialty of Endodontology, while offering explanations and specific examples to assist authors when writing abstracts for systematic reviews when reported in manuscripts or submitted to conferences. Strict adherence to the PRISMA for Abstracts checklist by authors, reviewers, and journal editors will result in the consistent publication of high-quality abstracts within Endodontology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30891775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Does quality institutions promote environmental quality?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Mar 19;:

Authors: Ali HS, Zeqiraj V, Lin WL, Law SH, Yusop Z, Bare UAA, Chin L

PMID: 30891699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Phytochemical Screening of Essential Oils and Antibacterial Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Barringtonia asiatica (L) Leaf Extract.

Biochem Res Int. 2019;2019:7143989

Authors: Umaru IJ, Badruddin FA, Umaru HA

Objective: To ascertain the essential oil phytochemicals of the leaf and to test for the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of dichloromethane crude extract of Barringtonia asiatica leaf.
Methods: The phytochemical screening of essential oils, extraction by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus, and analysis performed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Antibacterial activity and the inhibition rate (mm) were determined using the agar disc method against four bacterial strains using tetracycline as positive control. The antioxidant potential of dichloromethane crude extract was investigated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.
Results: The essential oil properties were reasonable with major phytochemicals like uncineol 30.9%, eicosane 27.4%, eicosane 21.6%, and 4-propyl-guaiacol 14.05%. The antibacterial activity of the dichloromethane crude extract showed broad-spectrum activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae with inhibition value ranges between 2.50 ± 0.10 mm and 5.00 ± 0.06 mm. The dichloromethane crude extract exhibited strong antioxidant activities when compared to the standard.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaves of Barringtonia asiatica is composed of essential compound as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties from the crude extract; these are possible due to the presence of some bioactive compounds in the crude extract. The species also showed a reasonable amount of natural products in the essential oils from the hydrodistillation which can as well be used in the cosmetics and food industries.

PMID: 30891316 [PubMed]

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Characterisation and correlates of stunting among Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6-19 years.

Glob Health Epidemiol Genom. 2019;4:e2

Authors: Partap U, Young EH, Allotey P, Sandhu MS, Reidpath DD

Background: Despite emerging evidence regarding the reversibility of stunting at older ages, most stunting research continues to focus on children below 5 years of age. We aimed to assess stunting prevalence and examine the sociodemographic distribution of stunting risk among older children and adolescents in a Malaysian population.
Methods: We used cross-sectional data on 6759 children and adolescents aged 6-19 years living in Segamat, Malaysia. We compared prevalence estimates for stunting defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) references, using Cohen's κ coefficient. Associations between sociodemographic indices and stunting risk were examined using mixed-effects Poisson regression with robust standard errors.
Results: The classification of children and adolescents as stunted or normal height differed considerably between the two references (CDC v. WHO; κ for agreement: 0.73), but prevalence of stunting was high regardless of reference (crude prevalence: CDC 29.2%; WHO: 19.1%). Stunting risk was approximately 19% higher among underweight v. normal weight children and adolescents (p = 0.030) and 21% lower among overweight children and adolescents (p = 0.001), and decreased strongly with improved household drinking water sources [risk ratio (RR) for water piped into house: 0.35, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.30-0.41, p < 0.001). Protective effects were also observed for improved sanitation facilities (RR for flush toilet: 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.88, p = 0.023). Associations were not materially affected in multiple sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions: Our findings justify a framework for strategies addressing stunting across childhood, and highlight the need for consensus on a single definition of stunting in older children and adolescents to streamline monitoring efforts.

PMID: 30891249 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Curcumin Nanoformulations for Colorectal Cancer: A Review.

Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:152

Authors: Wong KE, Ngai SC, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH, Chuah LH

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent form of cancer, after lung cancer and breast cancer, with the second highest death incidence. Over the years, natural compounds have been explored as an alternative to conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Curcumin, an active constituent of turmeric has been associated with various health benefits. It has gained much attention as an anticancer agent due to its ability to regulate multiple cell signaling pathways, including NF-κB, STAT3, activated protein-1 (AP-1), epidermal growth response-1 (Egr-1), and p53, which are crucial in cancer development and progression. Nevertheless, the clinical application of curcumin is greatly restricted because of its low water solubility, poor oral absorption, and rapid metabolism. These issues have led to the development of curcumin nanoformulations to overcome the limitations of the compound. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems have been widely used in improving the delivery of poorly-water soluble drugs. Besides, these systems also come with the added benefits of possible cellular targeting and improvement in cellular uptake. An ideal improved formulation should display a greater anticancer activity compared to free curcumin, and at the same time be non-toxic to the normal cells. In this review, we focus on the design and development of various nanoformulations to deliver curcumin for use in CRC such as liposomes, micelles, polymer nanoparticles, nanogels, cyclodextrin complexes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), phytosomes, and gold nanoparticles. We also discuss the current pre-clinical and clinical evidences of curcumin nanoformulations in CRC therapy, analyse the research gap, and address the future direction of this research area.

PMID: 30890933 [PubMed]

Related Articles

Inherited metabolic disorders presenting as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: A case series of patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2019 Mar;69(3):432-436

Authors: Zahid M, Khan AH, Yunus ZM, Chen BC, Steinmann B, Johannes H, Afroze B

In spite of the efforts and interventions by the Government of Pakistan and The World Health Organization, the neonatal mortality in Pakistan has declined by only 0.9% as compared to the global average decline of 2.1% between 2000 and 2010. This has resulted in failure to achieve the global Millennium Development Goal 4. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, still birth, sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhoea and birth defects are commonly attributed as leading causes of neonatal mortality in Pakistan. Inherited metabolic disorders often present at the time of birth or the first few days of life. The clinical presentation of the inherited metabolic disorders including hypotonia, seizure and lactic acidosis overlap with clinical features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and sepsis. Thus, these disorders are often either missed or wrongly diagnosed as hypoxicischaemic encephalopathy or sepsis unless the physicians actively investigate for the underlying inherited metabolic disorders. We present 4 neonates who had received the diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and eventually were diagnosed to have various inherited metabolic disorders. Neonates with sepsis and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy-like clinical presentation should be evaluated for inherited metabolic disorders.

PMID: 30890842 [PubMed - in process]

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Epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis, clinical aspects and socio-economic determinants in Pakistani patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2019 Mar;69(3):389-398

Authors: Naqvi AA, Hassali MA, Aftab MT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate literature on rheumatoid arthritis disease in Pakistani patients, to have an understanding about its epidemiology, clinical aspects and socio-economic determinants.
METHODS: The review study was conducted from December 2017, to May 2018. An online search was conducted in international and local health databases using appropriate search keywords as well as scanning reference lists of related articles. Literature published after year 2000 that reported epidemiological, demographic, clinical and socioeconomic data of Pakistani rheumatoid arthritis patients was included. Meta-analysis was performed where possible. This systematic review was registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews PROSPERO (CRD42018090582).
RESULTS: Of the 334 research articles found, 29 (8.7%) were selected. Patients were mostly females, but no study explored impact of disease on household and family role functioning of rheumatoid arthritis-affected women in Pakistan. Most patients were uneducated (55%) and unemployed; had low disease knowledge (N = 149, 74.5%) and poor adherence to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (N = 23, 23%). Point prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis reported from Karachi was high at 26.9%. Moderate disease activity, i.e., 4.5}0.7 and mild functional disability (N = 66, 51.6%) were seen in RA patients. Almost half (N = 799, 46.9%) had comorbidities. Almost a fifth proportion of RA patients had dyslipidaemia as a comorbidity (N = 134, 16.77%) and higher cardiovascular risk score as modifiable risk factor. Undiagnosed depression (N = 134, 58.3%) and low bone mineral density (N = 93, 40.6%) were reported in RA patients. Direct monthly treatment cost of disease was significantly high considering patients' socio-economic status, i.e., USD 16.47 - 100.68. Most commonly used drug was methotrexate.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of data on Pakistani rheumatoid arthritis patients' demographic and socio-economic parameters, especially the gender element.

PMID: 30890833 [PubMed - in process]

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