Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

Related Articles

Aspergillus terreus treated rice straw suppresses methane production and enhances feed digestibility in goats.

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017 Nov 17;:

Authors: Mohd Azlan P, Jahromi MF, Ariff MO, Ebrahimi M, Candyrine SCL, Liang JB

Abstract
The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy of producing lovastatin in rice straw treated with Aspergillus terreus in larger laboratory scale following the procedure previously reported and to investigate the effectiveness of the treated rice straw containing lovastatin on methane mitigation in goats. The concentration of lovastatin in the treated rice straw was 0.69 ± 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM) rice straw. Our results showed that supplementation of lovastatin at 4.14 mg/kg BW reduced methane production by 32% while improving the DM digestibility by 13% (P < 0.05) in goats fed fermented rice straw compared to those fed untreated rice straw. Populations of total methanogens and Methanobacteriales species were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) while the population of total bacteria and Ruminococcus albus were increased in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that lovastatin in the treated rice straw acted specifically on the methanogens by inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase in the methanogens' cell membrane biosynthesis pathway and thus the growth of rumen methanogens as previously reported. This study provides a simple yet practical approach to mitigate enteric methane production particularly in the developing countries which depend heavily on the use of agro-biomass such as rice straw to feed their ruminant animals.

PMID: 29150805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Disparity Between Indications for and Utilization of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Asian Patients With Heart Failure.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017 Nov;10(11):

Authors: Chia YMF, Teng TK, Tan ESJ, Tay WT, Richards AM, Chin CWL, Shimizu W, Park SW, Hung CL, Ling LH, Ngarmukos T, Omar R, Siswanto BB, Narasimhan C, Reyes EB, Yu CM, Anand I, MacDonald MR, Yap J, Zhang S, Finkelstein EA, Lam CSP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are lifesaving devices for patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. However, utilization and determinants of ICD insertion in Asia are poorly defined. We determined the utilization, associations of ICD uptake, patient-perceived barriers to device therapy and, impact of ICDs on mortality in Asian patients with HF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the prospective ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry, 5276 patients with symptomatic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from 11 Asian regions and across 3 income regions (high: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; middle: China, Malaysia, and Thailand; and low: India, Indonesia, and Philippines) were studied. ICD utilization, clinical characteristics, as well as device perception and knowledge, were assessed at baseline among ICD-eligible patients (EF ≤35% and New York Heart Association Class II-III). Patients were followed for the primary outcome of all-cause mortality. Among 3240 ICD-eligible patients (mean age 58.9±12.9 years, 79.1% men), 389 (12%) were ICD recipients. Utilization varied across Asia (from 1.5% in Indonesia to 52.5% in Japan) with a trend toward greater uptake in regions with government reimbursement for ICDs and lower out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. ICD (versus non-ICD) recipients were more likely to be older (63±11 versus 58±13 year; P<0.001), have tertiary (versus ≤primary) education (34.9% versus 18.1%; P<0.001) and be residing in a high (versus low) income region (64.5% versus 36.5%; P<0.001). Among 2000 ICD nonrecipients surveyed, 55% were either unaware of the benefits of, or needed more information on, device therapy. ICD implantation reduced risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97) and sudden cardiac deaths (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.79) over a median follow-up of 417 days.
CONCLUSIONS: ICDs reduce mortality risk, yet utilization in Asia is low; with disparity across geographic regions and socioeconomic status. Better patient education and targeted healthcare reforms in extending ICD reimbursement may improve access.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01633398. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.

PMID: 29150533 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

Waste Manag. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Amin NAS, Talebian-Kiakalaieh A

Abstract
As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives.

PMID: 29150259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles

Vortioxetine Treatment for Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study.

Curr Drug Targets. 2017 Nov 17;:

Authors: Yee A, Ng CG, Seng LH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that has been developed for the treatment of major depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this review is to quantitatively synthesize all data of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Vortioxetine in treating anxiety disorder.
METHOD: Terms of "Vortioxetine" OR "LuAA21004" AND "anxiety" OR "fear" OR "panic" OR "phobia" were searched. A total of two phase II and five phase III clinical trials were found.
RESULTS: Vortioxetine was overall superior to placebo in terms of the mean change from baseline in HAM-A total score at week 8 with the pool effect size of -2.95, 95% CIs, -4.37 to -1.53, p<0.01. The patients who received 5 mg of Vortioxetine had higher response rate when compared to placebo (pooled odds ratio=1.4, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.82, p=0.01). However, the pooled odds ratio of the HAM-A remission rate was not statistically significant for both Vortioxetine and placebo (pooled odds ratio=1.06, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.30, p=0.62). Although the discontinuation due to adverse effects was higher in Vortioxetine than placebo group (pooled OR= 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31, P= 0.037), the lack of efficacy (pooled OR= 0.39, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.57, P<0.01) was higher in placebo than Vortioxetine group. Most of the adverse effects were mild and moderate. Overall, Vortioxetine displayed a good safety and tolerability profile.
CONCLUSION: This review supports the use of Vortioxetine for anxiety disorder. However, further long-term placebo-control observational study or a post market survey would help in strengthening the evidence for this treatment modality.

PMID: 29149828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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