Research in Malaysia

Recent research output from Malaysia (via PubMed). Updated automatically.

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Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2019 Apr 23;:

Authors: Bohari A, Hashim S, Ghoshal SK, Mohd Mustafa SN

Long exposure to radiation from fluoroscopy-guided interventions (FGIs) can be detrimental to both patients and radiologists. The effective doses received by the interventional radiology staff after performing 230 FGIs in a year were assessed by using double dosimetry and five various algorithms. The Shapiro-Wilk test revealed normally-distributed data (p < 0.01), while the significant correlation coefficients between the effective doses ranged between 0.88 and 1.00. As for the Bland-Altman analysis, both Niklason and Boetticher algorithms strongly supported the absence of statistical significance between the estimated effective doses. This portrays that the occupational doses received by the interventional radiology staff during FGIs fall within the acceptable limit regardless of the varied algorithms applied. In short, the Niklason and Boetticher algorithms appeared to be the more interchangeable ones for effective evaluation of doses. This is in view of their strong mutual correlations and excellent agreement.

PMID: 31329977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Postreconstitution Stability of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Suspensions at Tropical Room Temperature.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2019 Apr 30;:

Authors: Maiwada J, Said MM

PMID: 31329913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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How safe are standard certified motorcycle safety helmets? Malaysian postal delivery riders scenario.

Traffic Inj Prev. 2019 Jul 22;:1-6

Authors: Yellappan K, K C Mani K, Md Tamrin SB

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of motorcycle safety helmets (MSHs) used by postal delivery riders (PDRs) that comply with the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia's (SIRIM) MSH standard guidelines and identify factors that contribute toward compliance of used MSHs with the standards. Methods: The presence of SIRIM certification label, the status of MSH, type of chinstrap, MSH crash history, and duration of MSH use were observed. The dependent variable was the results of the SIRIM testing procedures (SIRIM tests). MSHs that passed the SIRIM tests were considered "standard certified" MSHs. Results: The odds of the complimentary MSHs passing all of the SIRIM tests were 3.7 times the odds of the self-purchased MSHs passing the tests. The odds of MSHs with the SIRIM certification label passing all of the SIRIM tests were 24.2 times the odds of MSHs without the SIRIM certification label, and the odds of MSHs used <3 years passing the SIRIM tests were 3.75 times the odds of the MSHs used ≥3.8 years. Conclusion: PDRs provided with complimentary MSHs with the SIRIM certification label by the employer for their daily delivery routines and duration of MSH used for less than 3 years were found to be safe MSHs for male occupational riders in Malaysia.

PMID: 31329467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles from Marsdenia tenacissima and its anticancer activity of liver cancer HepG2 cells.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):3029-3036

Authors: Li L, Zhang W, Desikan Seshadri VD, Cao G

Nowadays, the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from plant based extracts and effects of their anticancer have concerned an important interest. Marsdenia tenacissima (MT), a conventional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used for thousands of years to treat tracheitis, asthma, rheumatism, etc. In this present study, we optimize the reaction of parameters to manage the nanoparticle size, which was categorized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). A different characterization method, for example, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to consider the synthesized AuNPs getting from the MT leaf extract. The MT-AuNPs were analyzed for their cytotoxicity property against HepG2 cells by MTT analysis. The apoptosis was evaluated by using reactive oxygen species (ROS), migration assay, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptotic protein expression. Interestingly, the findings of our study observed the cytotoxicity effect of synthesized MT-AuNPs at a concentration of 59.62 ± 4.37 μg after 24 hrs treatment. Apoptosis was induced by the MT-AuNPs with enhanced ROS, changed MMP and inhibit the migration assay. Finally, the apoptosis was confirmed by the considerable up-regulation of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3, while the anti-apoptotic protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated. Although, in this studies, we evaluated the characterization, synthesis and anticancer action of gold nanoparticles from MT (MT-AuNPS) helpful for liver cancer therapeutics.

PMID: 31328556 [PubMed - in process]

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Perception of Harms and Benefits of Electronic Cigarettes Among Adult Malaysian Men: A Comparison by Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Status.

Asia Pac J Public Health. 2019 Jul 21;:1010539519860730

Authors: Chan CMH, Ab Rahman J, Guat Hiong T, Lei Hum W, Bee Kiau H, Robson NZMH, Draman S, Ling Miaw Yn J, Kuang Hock L, Dip Public Health, Yusoff MF, Kartiwi M, Ab Rahman NS, Nik Mohamed MH

Little is known about the perceptions of harm and benefit associated with the use of e-cigarettes in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample comprising 1987 males (≥18 years of age). Current, former, and never users of conventional cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes participated in a questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face interviews. The relationship between participant characteristics and perceptions of harm and benefit of e-cigarettes were determined with multivariable logistic regression. There were 950 current, 377 former, and 660 never users of e-cigarettes. Government employees (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.66, P = .001), private sector employees (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.27-2.18, P = .001), and the self-employed people (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31-2.17, P = .001) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as more harmful than conventional cigarettes compared with respondents who were not wage earners. All current users in the form of e-cigarette users (OR = 7.87, 95% CI = 3.23-19.18), conventional cigarette smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.33), and dual users (OR = 8.59, 95% CI = 4.76-15.52) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as useful in quitting conventional cigarette smoking compared with former and never users. Our findings constitute an important snapshot into the perceptions of e-cigarette harms and benefits, which could inform targeted public health messaging strategies.

PMID: 31328531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Densities of Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in heavily degraded forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo.

Am J Primatol. 2019 Jul 21;:e23030

Authors: Seaman DJI, Bernard H, Ancrenaz M, Coomes D, Swinfield T, Milodowski DT, Humle T, Struebig MJ

The conversion of forest to agriculture continues to contribute to the loss and fragmentation of remaining orang-utan habitat. There are still few published estimates of orang-utan densities in these heavily modified agricultural areas to inform range-wide population assessments and conservation strategies. In addition, little is known about what landscape features promote orang-utan habitat use. Using indirect nest count methods, we implemented surveys and estimated population densities of the Northeast Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) across the continuous logged forest and forest remnants in a recently salvage-logged area and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We then assessed the influence of landscape features and forest structural metrics obtained from LiDAR data on estimates of orang-utan density. Recent salvage logging appeared to have a little short-term effect on orang-utan density (2.35 ind/km 2 ), which remained similar to recovering logged forest nearby (2.32 ind/km 2 ). Orang-utans were also present in remnant forest patches in oil palm plantations, but at significantly lower numbers (0.82 ind/km 2 ) than nearby logged forest and salvage-logged areas. Densities were strongly influenced by variation in canopy height but were not associated with other potential covariates. Our findings suggest that orang-utans currently exist, at least in the short-term, within human-modified landscapes, providing that remnant forest patches remain. We urge greater recognition of the role that these degraded habitats can have in supporting orang-utan populations, and that future range-wide analyses and conservation strategies better incorporate data from human-modified landscapes.

PMID: 31328289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Self-reported hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus: Results from the Singapore cohort of the International Operations Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool study.

Singapore Med J. 2019 Jul 22;:

Authors: Tan NC, Goh SY, Khoo EY, Dalan R, Koong A, Khoo CM, Tan TS, Jain AB, Gadekar AV, Bee YM, IO HAT Investigator group

INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycaemia constitutes a significant barrier to achieving glycaemic control with insulin in both Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The International Operations Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study was designed to determine the incidence of hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated patients with T1DM and T2DM.
METHODS: The IO HAT study retrospectively and prospectively assessed the incidence of hypoglycaemia in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in nine countries. This sub-analysis included patients from Singapore with T1DM or T2DM who were aged ≥ 21 years and had completed two self-assessment questionnaires (SAQ1 and SAQ2).
RESULTS: Of the 50 T1DM and 320 T2DM patients who completed the SAQ1, 39 T1DM and 265 T2DM patients completed SAQ2; 100% and 90.9%, respectively, experienced at least one hypoglycaemic event prospectively. The incidence rates of any hypoglycaemia were 49.5 events per patient-year (EPPY) and 16.1 EPPY for T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively, in the four-week prospective period. Hypoglycaemia rate did not differ in terms of HbA1c level. The vast majority of T1DM or T2DM patients (92.0% and 90.7%, respectively) knew the overall definition of hypoglycaemia before study participation, although over half of the patients (T1DM 54.0%, T2DM 51.9%) defined hypoglycaemia based only on symptoms.
CONCLUSION: High proportions of insulin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus in Singapore reported hypoglycaemic events prospectively, showing that they had underreported hypoglycaemic episodes retrospectively. Patient education can help in improving hypoglycaemia awareness and its management in the region.

PMID: 31328239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals and the impact on willingness to donate organs: a tertiary hospital survey.

Singapore Med J. 2019 Jul 22;:

Authors: Oo WL, Ong JS, Fong JW, Hossain MM, Baskaran ND, Haron H, Varadarajan R

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) working in critical care areas play an important role in the organ donation (OD) process. We studied HCPs' own willingness to be organ donors and its association with sociodemographic factors as well as their knowledge and attitudes about OD and transplantation.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of HCPs working in four critical care units in a major transplant centre in Malaysia was undertaken using a validated structured questionnaire. Responses were analysed using multivariable analysis with willingness to donate as the dependent variable.
RESULTS: Of the 412 respondents (response rate 98.1%), the majority were nurses (60.4%), Malay (71.1%) and female (77.2%). Overall, 68.0% were willing to donate. The independent predictors of willingness to donate were profession (p < 0.001) and the Hindu religion (p = 0.001). Ethnicity (p = 0.003), religious belief (p < 0.001), knowledge (p = 0.016), belief in brain death (p = 0.018) and confidence in transplantation (p < 0.001) also independently correlated with willingness to donate, while attitudes to OD did not. Of those willing to donate, only 37.3% were carrying a donor card and only 63.1% had informed their family of their intention to donate.
CONCLUSION: Although willingness to donate was higher in critical care HCPs than HCPs in general, significant knowledge gaps as well as certain beliefs and perceptions that could pose a barrier to OD were identified in this group. Measures to improve OD rates in Malaysia should include targeted educational programmes for HCPs working in critical care areas.

PMID: 31328238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Encapsulation of in vitro Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. shoot apices for propagation and conservation.

3 Biotech. 2019 Aug;9(8):298

Authors: Arumugam G, Sinniah UR, Swamy MK, Lynch PT

This investigation demonstrates an efficient method of propagation, short-term conservation, and germplasm exchange for Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. encapsulated propagules. In vitro-derived shoot apices (shoot tips and nodal segments) which showed 100% survival on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine were selected for encapsulation studies. Shoot apices measuring about 3-5 mm in size showed the ability to break the beads and exhibited 100% survival and regrowth. The combination of 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 was found to be ideal for forming uniformally spherical beads, and successive preservation of encapsulated shoot apices into plantlets. The encapsulated shoot tips were relatively more effective than the nodal segments in terms of shoot growth and multiplication. Encapsulated shoot tips retained the ability to regrow (63.3%) for up to 40 days when maintained at 4 °C. Encapsulated shoot tips effectively converted into plantlets on agar medium (78%) and peat moss (58%) under in vitro conditions. Encapsulated shoot tips on agar medium showed a higher shoot regeneration (9.91 ± 0.15 shoots per explant) ability than the peat moss (5.71 ± 0.34 shoots per explant), while the highest rooting (12.16 ± 0.23 roots per explant) was observed on peat moss. Thus, calcium alginate encapsulation holds latent qualities that could be explored to develop a future alternative method of propagation, short-term storage and germplasm distribution for elite genotypes of Plectranthus sp.

PMID: 31328080 [PubMed]

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A new species of Aciconula (Amphipoda, Senticauda, Caprellidae) from Sultan Iskandar Marine Park, Malaysia.

Zookeys. 2019;859:17-29

Authors: Lim JHC, Azman BAR, Othman BHR

A new species of caprellid, Aciconulatinggiensis (Amphipoda, Senticaudata, Caprellidae) was discovered from Pulau Tinggi, Sultan Iskandar Marine Park (SIMP), South China Sea, Malaysia. The new Malaysian species can be distinguished from the other Aciconula species by the combination of the following characters: 1. the presence of a very small suture between head and pereonite 1; 2. antenna 1 flagellum with 4 articles; 3. inner lobe of lower lip unilobed; 4. gnathopod 2 palm of propodus with a large proximal projection (stretching from the proximal margin of the palm to nearly mid-way of palm); 5. pereopods 3-4 with 2 articles (article 1 subrectangular, article 2 conical or tapering at the tip with 1 plumose seta and 2 normal setae) and; 6. pereopod 5 covered with relatively dense and long setae. An updated identification key for the five known species in the genus, including information on the respective geographical distribution and habitat, is presented.

PMID: 31327920 [PubMed]

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